essential plant elements nutrients

Our essential plant elements are more for use of hydroponic and in some cases of spraying via leaf. These methods of growing plants in a water-nutrients solution instead of soil. Since its advent, hydroponics has developed into a growing process that researchers often use. Scientists who are interested in studying essential plant elements deficiencies can use hydroponics to study the effects of different nutrients combinations under strictly controlled conditions. Hydroponics has also developed as a way to grow flowers, vegetables, and other crops in greenhouse environments. You might find hydroponically grown produce at your local grocery store. Today, many lettuces and tomatoes in your market have been hydroponically grown.

Essential Plant Elements

Essential plant elements in fertilizers form are food for plants: they provide the essential nutrients that they need to grow and thrive. In addition to carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, which they get from the atmosphere and water, plants need 14 essential plant elements for their growth and health, which fertilizers provide. Plants can absorb inorganic nutrients and water through their root system, and carbon dioxide from the environment. The combination of organic essential plant elements, along with water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight, produce the energy that allows plants to grow.

These are: Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Sulphur (S), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Boron (B), Molybdenum (Mo), Chlorine (Cl), Nickel (Ni). Additional elements may be essential to a few plant species, e.g. Sodium (Na) and Cobalt (Co).

Essential Plant Elements

major plants nutrition

Nitrogen (N)

Nitrogen - organic plants nutrient is a key element in plant growth. It is found in all plant cells, in plant proteins and hormones, and in chlorophyll. Some plants such as legumes fix atmospheric nitrogen in their roots. When applied to soil, nitrogen is converted to mineral form, nitrate, so that plants can take it up. Nitrogen compounds comprise 40% to 50% of the dry matter of protoplasm, and it is a constituent of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins.

Phosphorus (P)

Phosphorus - organic plants nutrient helps transfer energy from sunlight to plants, stimulates early root and plant growth, and hastens maturity. phosphorus is involved with many vital plant processes. Within a plant, it is present mainly as a structural component of the nucleic acids: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), as well as a constituent of fatty phospholipids, that are important in membrane development and function. It is present in both organic and inorganic forms, both of which are readily translocated within the plant. All energy transfers in the cell are critically dependent on phosphorus. As with all living things, phosphorus is part of the Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is of immediate use in all processes that require energy with the cells. Phosphorus can also be used to modify the activity of various enzymes by phosphorylation, and is used for cell signaling. Phosphorus is concentrated at the most actively growing points of a plant and stored within seeds in anticipation of their germination.

Potassium (K)

Potassium - organic plants nutrient increases vigor and disease resistance of plants, helps form and move starches, sugars and oils in plants, and can improve fruit quality. Processes involving potassium include the formation of carbohydrates and proteins, the regulation of internal plant moisture, as a catalyst and condensing agent of complex substances, as an accelerator of enzyme action, and as contributor to photosynthesis, especially under low light intensity. Potassium regulates the opening and closing of the stomata by a potassium ion pump. Since stomata are important in water regulation, potassium regulates water loss from the leaves and increases drought tolerance. Potassium serves as an activator of enzymes used in photosynthesis and respiration. Potassium is used to build cellulose and aids in photosynthesis by the formation of a chlorophyll precursor. The potassium ion (K+) is highly mobile and can aid in balancing the anion (negative) charges within the plant.

Calcium (Ca)

Calcium - organic plants nutrient is essential for root health, growth of new roots and root hairs, and the development of leaves. Calcium in plants occurs chiefly in the leaves, with lower concentrations in seeds, fruits, and roots. A major function is as a constituent of cell walls. When coupled with certain acidic compounds of the jelly-like pectin of the middle lamella, calcium forms an insoluble salt. It is also intimately involved in meristems, and is particularly important in root development, with roles in cell division, cell elongation, and the detoxification of hydrogen ions. Other functions attributed to calcium are; the neutralization of organic acids; inhibition of some potassium-activated ions; and a role in nitrogen absorption. A notable feature of calcium-deficient plants is a defective root system. Roots are usually affected before above-ground parts. Blossom end rot is also a result of inadequate calcium. Calcium regulates transport of other nutrients into the plant and is also involved in the activation of certain plant enzymes. Calcium deficiency results in stunting. This nutrient is involved in photosynthesis and plant structure. It is needed as a balancing cation for anions in the vacuole and as an intracellular messenger in the cytosol.

Magnesium (Mg)

Magnesium - organic plants nutrient is a key component of chlorophyll, the green coloring material of plants, and is vital for photosynthesis (the conversion of the sun’s energy to food for the plant). The outstanding role of magnesium in plant nutrition is as a constituent of the chlorophyll molecule. As a carrier, it is also involved in numerous enzyme reactions as an effective activator, in which it is closely associated with energy-supplying phosphorus compounds.

Sulfur (S)

Sulfur - organic plants nutrient is a constituent of amino acids in plant proteins and is involved in energy-producing processes in plants. It is responsible for many flavor and odor compounds in plants such as the aroma of onions and cabbage. Sulfur is a structural component of some amino acids (including cysteine and methionine) and vitamins, and is essential for chloroplast growth and function; it is found in the iron-sulfur complexes of the electron transport chains in photosynthesis. It is needed for N2 fixation by legumes, and the conversion of nitrate into amino acids and then into protein.

Iron (Fe)

Iron - organic plants nutrient is a constituent of many compounds that regulate and promote growth. Iron is necessary for photosynthesis and is present as an enzyme cofactor in plants. Iron deficiency can result in interveinal chlorosis and necrosis. Iron is not a structural part of chlorophyll but very much essential for its synthesis. Copper deficiency can be responsible for promoting an iron deficiency. It helps in the electron transport of plant.

Manganese (Mn)

Manganese - organic plants nutrient is necessary for photosynthesis, including the building of chloroplasts. Manganese deficiency may result in coloration abnormalities, such as discolored spots on the foliage.

Copper (Cu)

Copper - organic plants nutrient is an essential constituent of enzymes in plants. Copper is important for photosynthesis. Symptoms for copper deficiency include chlorosis. It is involved in many enzyme processes; necessary for proper photosynthesis; involved in the manufacture of lignin (cell walls) and involved in grain production. It is also hard to find in some soil conditions.

Zinc (Zn)

Zinc - organic plants nutrient helps in the production of a plant hormone responsible for stem elongation and leaf expansion. Zinc is required in a large number of enzymes and plays an essential role in DNA transcription. A typical symptom of zinc deficiency is the stunted growth of leaves, commonly known as “little leaf” and is caused by the oxidative degradation of the growth hormone auxin.

Boron (B)

Boron - organic plants nutrient helps with the formation of cell walls in rapidly growing tissue. Deficiency reduces the uptake of calcium and inhibits the plant’s ability to use it. Boron has many functions within a plant: it affects flowering and fruiting, pollen germination, cell division, and active salt absorption. The metabolism of amino acids and proteins, carbohydrates, calcium, and water are strongly affected by boron. Many of those listed functions may be embodied by its function in moving the highly polar sugars through cell membranes by reducing their polarity and hence the energy needed to pass the sugar. If sugar cannot pass to the fastest growing parts rapidly enough, those parts die.

Molybdenum (Mo)

Molybdenum - organic plants nutrient helps bacteria and soil organisms convert nitrogen in the air to soluble nitrogen compounds in the soil, so is particularly needed by legumes. It is also essential in the formation of proteins from soluble nitrogen compounds. The outstanding role of Molybdenum in plant nutrition is as a constituent of the chlorophyll molecule. As a carrier, it is also involved in numerous enzyme reactions as an effective activator, in which it is closely associated with energy-supplying phosphorus compounds. Molybdenum is necessary for photosynthesis, including the building of chloroplasts. Molybdenum deficiency may result in coloration abnormalities, such as discolored spots on the foliage.

Sodium (Na)

Sodium - organic plants nutrient is involved in the regeneration of phosphoenolpyruvate in CAM and C4 plants. Sodium can potentially replace potassium’s regulation of stomatal opening and closing. Essentiality of sodium: Essential for C4 plants rather C3 Substitution of K by Na: Plants can be classified into four groups: Group A—a high proportion of K can be replaced by Na and stimulate the growth, which cannot be achieved by the application of K Group B—specific growth responses to Na are observed but they are much less distinct Group C—Only minor substitution is possible and Na has no effect Group D—No substitution occurs Stimulate the growth—increase leaf area and stomata. Improves the water balance Na functions in metabolism C4 metabolism Impair the conversion of pyruvate to phosphoenol-pyruvate, reduce the photosystem II activity and ultrastructural changes in mesophyll chloroplast, replacing K functions, internal osmoticum, stomatal function, photosynthesis, counteraction in long distance transport, enzyme activation. Improves the crop quality e.g. improves the taste of carrots by increasing sucrose.

Chlorine (Cl)

Chlorine - organic plants nutrient as compounded chloride, is necessary for osmosis and ionic balance; it also plays a role in photosynthesis.

Cobalt (Co)

Cobalt - organic plants nutrient has proven to be beneficial to at least some plants although it does not appear to be essential for most species. It has, however, been shown to be essential for nitrogen fixation by the nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with legumes and other plants.

Silicon (Si)

Silicon - organic plants nutrient is not considered an essential element for plant growth and development. It is always found in abundance in the environment and hence if needed it is available. It is found in the structures of plants and improves the health of plants. In plants, silicon has been shown in experiments to strengthen cell walls, improve plant strength, health, and productivity. There have been studies showing evidence of silicon improving drought and frost resistance, decreasing lodging potential and boosting the plant’s natural pest and disease fighting systems. Silicon has also been shown to improve plant vigor and physiology by improving root mass and density, and increasing above ground plant biomass and crop yields.

Vanadium (V)

Vanadium - organic plants nutrient may be required by some plants, but at very low concentrations. It may also be substituting for molybdenum.

Selenium (Se)

Selenium - organic plants nutrient is probably not essential for flowering plants, but it can be beneficial; it can stimulate plant growth, improve tolerance of oxidative stress, and increase resistance to pathogens and herbivory.

Nickel (Ni)

Nickel - organic plants nutrient In higher plants is absorbed by plants in the form of Ni2+ ion. Nickel is essential for activation of urease, an enzyme involved with nitrogen metabolism that is required to process urea. Without nickel, toxic levels of urea accumulate, leading to the formation of necrotic lesions. In lower plants, nickel activates several enzymes involved in a variety of processes, and can substitute for zinc and iron as a cofactor in some enzymes.